AICA-ribonucleotide (AICAR) - AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide), also known as 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, is an AMF analog that is able to stimulate the activity of AMF-dependent proteinkinase. AICAR is currently under research as a drug for the treatment and protection of cardiac coronary artery disease. In the treatment of coronary heart injury, the probability of myocardial infarction is reduced. Myocardial ischemia is due to insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the myocardium. AICAR was first used in the 1980s as a way to maintain blood flow to the heart during surgery.
Nowadays, AICAR is used as a potential treatment for diabetes by increasing the metabolic activity of tissues through changes in the physical composition of muscles. AICAR (usually called Acadesine) is the counterpart to adenosine, which is injected into cardiomyocytes to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine disminase. Blocking allows the resynthesis rate of adenosine nucleotide to increase from adenosine monophosphate only in myocardial ischemia. Cardiomyocytes, AICA-riboside is phosphorylated with AICA-ribotide (ZMP) to activate AMPK without changing nucleotide levels. ZMP can enter De Novo by synthesizing adenosine triphosphorous blocking adenosine disminase, causing increased ATP and adenosine levels.
It has been shown that the use of AICAR in the diagnosis of early period of coronary artery occlusion with subsequent reperfusion and before the onset of prolonged ischemia, allows to delay cell death provides greater protection and treatment of myocardium through reperfusion therapy. AICAR helps prevent myocardial infarction.
The use of AICAR reduces calcium overload and prevents the activation of ROS inflammation.
AICAR also increases AMPK-dependent glucose absorption through GLUT-4 translocations, a process useful for the heart during post ischemic reperfusion.
AICAR reduces the frequency and size of myocardial infarction to 25% . Treatment reduces the risk of premature death and improves postoperative recovery from ischemic injury. In addition, AICAR affects the lipolysis of fat deposits.